2015

27.02

UgandAbout

Ugandabout – febbraio 2015

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Alcune notizie sull’Uganda e sull’Africa recuperate da internet nel febbraio 2015.

UGANDA: OPPORTUNITIES IN LAND
1 february 2015

TECHNICAL SCHOOLS CALL FOR MORE FUNDING
1 february 2015

JANUARY INFLATION DOWN TO 1.3%
2 february 2015

TOURISM BOARD GETS SHS4 BILLION TO MARKET UGANDA
6 february 2015

UGANDA NOW JOINS AFRICA IN SEARCH FOR EFFECTIVE EBOLA VACCINE
7 february 2015

UGANDA RATIFIES THE MONETARY UNION
7 february 2015

AFRICAN CHILDREN SUBJECT TO ‘ALARMING’ LEVELS OF VIOLENCE
11 february 2015

OIL AND TOURISM: CAN MURCHISON HAVE BOTH?
13 february 2015

BAMBINI SOLDATO, L’INFANZIA E L’ADOLESCENZA NEGATA DI CHI ANZICHE’ GIOCARE IMBRACCIA KALASHNIKOV
12 febbraio 2015

AI RUSSI IL CONTRATTO PER LA RAFFINERIA DI PETROLIO
20 febbraio 2015

GOV’T ASKS SCHOOLS TO FEED PUPILS WITHOUT FAIL
23 february 2015


UGANDA: OPPORTUNITIES IN LAND
1 february 2015
Some 60% percent of the world’s uncultivated arable land is in sub-Saharan Africa according to a report ‘An Imperative to African Agriculture’.
It is estimated that Africa has the potential to increase the value of its annual agricultural output from $280 billion in 2010 to about $500 billion by 2020 and to $880 billion by 2030.
Three researchers, Benedict S. Kanu, Adeleke Oluwole and Kazuhiro Numasawa Africa’s projected output is expected to impact significantly on its demand for upstream products such as fertilizers, seeds, pesticides and machinery. It is also expected to result in the growth of downstream activities such as biofuel production, grain refining and food processing.
Both upstream and downstream markets could be valued at up to $275 billion by 2030. However, this will be untenable without credible public-private partnerships and a sound investment environment.
Therefore, the active and responsible engagement of private agents in upstream and downstream phases of the agricultural value chain, including research and development, farm production, input and produce distribution, processing and value addition, identification of broader markets and so on, is vital for the transformation of Africa’s agriculture.
One major challenge, therefore, is how to develop new institutional arrangements between the public and private sectors that foster private sector development without leaving smallholder farmers isolated during the transition.
Currently, large investment opportunities still exist for viable agriculture. Components of these investments will include expanding infrastructure (e.g. water, irrigation, rural roads, storage and sea ports) across the agricultural value chain in order to ease the movement of agricultural goods from farmers to markets, both locally and regionally.
Untapped value-addition in agriculture, improvements in the business regulatory environment, expansion across the continent of the pan-African supermarket groups, such as Pick n Pay and Shoprite, all provide unique investment opportunities.
Such market-oriented investments also promote rural employment, facilitate technology transfer, and build a sound foundation for sustainability and long-term sector transformation. Moreover, opportunities abound for inputs supply and services delivery for modern farm machinery maintenance, tractor hire and research and development centres. There is also a need to develop animal traction and mechanization centres. Capacity building for research and extension agricultural information centres and seed multiplication technologies at informal private sector levels for effectiveness of rural reach will remain critical as well.
More efficient use of water resources, sustainable management of agricultural lands, timely supply of quality seeds and fertilizers, improved agricultural credit, post-harvest management, etc., will assist in reviving agriculture. Training rural youth in agriculture and business skills and encouraging them to engage in agribusiness will also promote the sector. Improving crop quality and restoring soil health through integrated soil fertility management techniques are equally vital.
Agricultural diversification focusing on crops, horticulture, livestock, poultry, fishery and other on-farm and off-farm rural enterprises with forward and backward linkages to agriculture will boost both production and consumption.
Despite the recent global financial and food crises, the longer-term inclusive growth prospects of Africa’s agriculture are bright for value-addition among the millions of smallholder farmers.
fonte http://allafrica.com

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TECHNICAL SCHOOLS CALL FOR MORE FUNDING
1 february 2015
Administrators of vocational and technical schools have asked government to increase grants for technical schools, saying lack of funds has compelled vocational institutions to admit a limited number of students.
Mr Aggrey Amonya Ofwono, the chairperson of head teachers of vocational and technical schools, said due to limited funds, many technical schools are understaffed.
“Most technical schools have only 46 per cent of required staff. The administrators of vocational schools have decided to recruit and admit a minimal number of students as well teachers. This is because of poor funding from the government” Mr Ofwono said.
He was speaking to Sunday Monitor on Friday at the ongoing selection exercise of Senior One and Technical Schools in Kampala. Mr Ofwono added that instruction material is very expensive yet the funding is limited to adequately facilitate the operational needs.
Call for more funds“For better service at technical schools, each student should be facilitated with at least Shs700,000 per term but the government gives not even a half of the required amount. This money includes feeding, instructional material and other operational necessities” he said.
Meanwhile, some teachers of the technical schools have said girls are not much considered in the selection exercise. They attributed this to government’s failure to consult them when selecting students to join technical schools.
You can imagine out of the 60 students only five are girls. These are the most vulnerable children in our society. If government had consulted us, we would have given it the necessary advice” Mr Bernard Ochekwoti, the head teacher of Kumi Technical School, said.
Ms Suzan Wanyenze, the director of studies at Namisindwa Technical School in Manafa District, concurred that girls are few, arguing that there is need to sensitise parents and primary school teachers about the importance of technical education.
“Some primary school teachers use technical schools as an abuse. I have ever heard a teacher furiously telling a child that her poor performance deserved to be in vocational school. This makes pupils believe that technical schools are for those children who have performed poorly” Ms Wanyenze said.
fonte www.monitor.co.ug – Joseph Kato

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JANUARY INFLATION DOWN TO 1.3%
2 february 2015
Recent data from the Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) indicates that year-on-year inflation dropped to 1.3% at the end of January.
Annual inflation declined from 1.8% recorded in December 2015. Chris Mukiza, the UBOS director for macro-economic statistics, says the decline in inflation is due to decrease in food prices due to the harvest season and declining fuel prices.
“There was a continued deflation in annual food prices to 3.3% in January 2015, compared to 1.9% recorded during the year ended December 2014” Mukiza said. “The annual non-food inflation declined to 3.5% at the end of January 2015, compared to 3.6% at the end of December 2014” he added.
Core inflation, which excludes food, fuel, electricity and metered water, stood at 2.7%, unchanged from December. There were decreases in the prices of bananas, sweet potatoes, cassava, and other foods, the statistics office said, which drove down the January food inflation by 2%.
UBOS data also indicates that prices for fuel, clothing, transport fares and other non-food items also decreased. Mukiza urged Ugandans to consume more local products to ease pressure on the shilling due to a high import bill.
Uganda imports $3b more than it exports, which affects its balance of payments position, resulting in a weaker shilling.
fonte www.newvision.co.ug – Samuel Sanya and Rachael Nabisubi

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TOURISM BOARD GETS SHS4 BILLION TO MARKET UGANDA
6 february 2015
Uganda is likely to witness increased tourists arrivals if a new marketing strategy hatched by Uganda Tourism Board (UTB) takes off.
According to the UTB chief executive officer, Mr Stephen Asiimwe, they have earmarked $1.5 million (about Shs4.2 billion) through the World Bank’s Competitiveness Enterprise Development Project (CEDP) initiative to cover the campaign.
“We are looking for competent firms which will market our country. These firms must know about tourism attractions and the rich biodiversity that Uganda has” Mr Asiimwe explained.
He added that the agencies will be Uganda’s representatives in three regions identified mainly as North America and Canada, United Kingdom and Ireland and the German speaking countries of Austria, German and Switzerland.
“We expect the nominated firms to clear the air about Uganda’s status mainly targeting big media companies in these countries and tour operators. They will do a lot of social media campaign about Uganda and attend respective meetings all geared at promoting and marketing Uganda” Mr Asiimwe added.
Trek East Africa Safaris managing director Geoffrey Baluku welcomed the idea. He said: “This campaign should not only focus on the regions where Uganda is known, but also exploit areas where Uganda is not known.”
According the tourism board, current tourist arrivals into Uganda have reached 1.4 million as of 2014 records and this is up from 600,000 in 2006.
These numbers have also seen the country’s earnings from tourists arrivals go up to $1.4 billion (about Shs4 trillion) in 2013-2014 up from $600,000 (about Shs1.2 billion) realised in 2006.
Mr Asiimwe, however, said though government investments in tourism have risen from $5,000 to $2 million (about Shs5.7 billion), more funding is still needed.
fonte www.monitor.co.ug – Dorothy Nakaweesi

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UGANDA NOW JOINS AFRICA IN SEARCH FOR EFFECTIVE EBOLA VACCINE
7 february 2015
In a fortnight, Uganda will embark on small-scale trials of two experimental vaccines against Ebola. The vaccines under trial are the Chimpanzee Adenovirus 3 for the Zaire Ebola strain and glycoproteins for both the Zaire and Sudan strains.
The World Health Organisation says there are at least 5 types of Ebola – Zaire, Sudan, Cote d’Ivoire, Bundibugyo and Reston. The disease has no known cure.
Uganda and the East African region have mostly suffered the Sudan and Zaire strains. The trial, expected to enrol just 90 volunteers, 30 of who participated in an earlier study is one of many efforts underway across the world to try and find a cure for the deadly disease.
The largest trial of an experimental vaccine started last week in Liberia, West Africa where about 8500 people are said to have died of Ebola and scientists are hoping to immunize about 30,000 volunteers and health workers.
Uganda’s decision to be part of a potentially game-changing vaccine is one that stems from history. The country has been a hot spot for Ebola, with the largest epidemic in 2000, killing more than 200 people, including front-line health workers. Over the years, several outbreaks have occurred in the country.

The trial, which will be conducted by the Makerere University Walter Reed Project (MUWRP), hopes to enrol male and female adults between the ages of 18 to 65, living within Kampala and its suburbs.
MUWRP is a collaboration between Makerere University and the US Military HIV Research Programme. “The main objective of this vaccine study is to understand how safe and well tolerated the vaccines are in healthy Ugandan adults and whether they are able to stimulate the body to defend itself against an Ebola infection” said Dr Hannah Kibuuka, the principal investigator at MUWRP.
“We are evaluating this vaccine for possible use in an outbreak environment because it is given as a single injection and if it can enlist an immune response quickly, then it will be very beneficial” said Dr Kibuuka.
Volunteers will be given two different doses of the vaccine, with some getting a higher dose than others.“We want to see which of the doses is better in terms of safety and immune response” said Dr Kibuuka. She also said former Ebola survivors would not be eligible for the trial.
“Ebola survivors already have immune responses generated from earlier infections so it will be difficult to tell if the response is from the past infection or from the vaccine” she said.
The upcoming trial builds on an earlier one that Uganda conducted against Ebola and Marburg between 2009 and 2012.
In the trial, 108 volunteers were randomly given either the Ebola or Marburg vaccine, or a placebo. They received three doses of the vaccine at four-week intervals.
After the study, the results showed a modest immune response, which scientists concluded proved useful enough in developing a more potent version of a possible vaccine.
The vaccines have been provided by the Vaccine Research Centre under the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
fonte www.theeastafrican.co.keEvelyn Lirri

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UGANDA RATIFIES THE MONETARY UNION
7 february 2015
The East African Monetary Union is set to be launched soon following its ratification by all the five EAC partner states. Uganda, which was the last to ratify the protocol, deposited its ratification instruments with the EAC Secretariat in Arusha last week. Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi and Kenya ratified the protocol last year. Uganda, it it reported, delayed ratifying the EAMU protocol due to budgetary constraints.
“Like the Common Market Protocol and Customs Union, the Monetary Union will be officially launched in each partner state simultaneously for its implementation” said Peter Njoroge, director of economics at Kenya’s Ministry of EAC.
“The launch will either be presided over by the country president or respective EAC ministries depending on the country’s arrangements” he added. Mr Njoroge said the ratification of the EAMU has paved the way for the partner states to start the process of implementing the protocol in the next 10 years.
According to Mr Njoroge the priority areas as per the protocol schedule will be the establishment of the EAC Monetary Institute and creation of an institution responsible for surveillance, compliance and enforcement by 2018. The other institutions to be created will include one in charge of collecting statistics and another responsible for financial services.
In November last year, the EAC central bank governors agreed that each country should at all times have enough dollars to buy 4.5 months’ worth of imports, yielding to pressure from Kenya, which felt the initial proposal of six months would hurt economies seeking to promote exports.
The single currency is the third pillar of the EAC integration after the Customs Union and the Common Market, which have paid off through improved turnaround for movement of cargo from Mombasa to Kampala from 18 to four days and from Mombasa to Kigali from 21 days to six days.
fonte www.theeastafrican.co.keChristabel Ligami

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AFRICAN CHILDREN SUBJECT TO ‘ALARMING’ LEVELS OF VIOLENCE
11 february 2015
Children across Africa face unacceptably high levels of physical, sexual and emotional violence at home, at school and in the streets, researchers specialising in children’s rights said on Wednesday.
Some 92 percent of pupils interviewed in Togo, 86 percent in Sierra Leone, 73 percent in Egypt, 71 percent in Ghana and 60 percent in Kenya said they had experienced violence from teachers and classmates, according to a report by the African Child Policy Forum (ACPF).
The report by the Ethiopia-based Research Institute also showed that 60 percent of children in Zambia, Morocco and Uganda had been physically punished by family members, as were nearly half of children surveyed in Mali and Ethiopia.
In Ethiopia, Mali, Morocco, Uganda and Zambia, 16 percent of children interviewed said they had scars on their bodies due to physical punishment.
“The burden of creating a continent where children live and grow up in safety principally lies on the shoulders of Africans themselves” Theophane Nikyema, ACPF’s executive director, said in a statement.
The report, launched at the United Nations, attributed some of the violence to pervasive traditional attitudes that condone or accept violence against children as the norm in African society.
Despite efforts in some African countries to protect children through policies and laws against corporal punishment, statutory rape, sexual violence, abuse and exploitation, violence persists because laws were not enforced, ACPF said.
As children grow older, their risk of experiencing violence outside the home increases, particularly for girls, the researchers said.
In Kenya, 46 percent of girls reported experiencing sexual violence in their communities, as did nearly 66 percent of schoolgirls in Sierra Leone.
The report found that the risk of violence and abuse was also greater for children with disabilities, those living and working onLisa Anderson the streets and those doing domestic work.
Special Representative of the U.N. Secretary General on Violence against Children, Marta Santos Pais, said children’s freedom from violence is “indispensable for the sustainable social and economic development of African nations.”
fonte http://allafrica.com –  Lisa Anderson

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OIL AND TOURISM: CAN MURCHISON HAVE BOTH?
13 february 2015
Of concern to the tourists is the use of the same entrances and tracks by the oil workers and tourists; the numerous ‘no entry’ signposts that lead to oil wells inside the park, and the sharing of a ferry by tourists and oil workers to cross the Nile River.
The dilemma is the Albertine Graben, which makes up 70 per cent of the country’s conservation area with wildlife, lakes, rivers and natural forest. The same area also has oil and gas.
The discovery of oil and gas in Uganda is proving to be a poisoned chalice, as exploration activities in the greater Albertine Graben now threaten tourism, which is the region’s major foreign exchange earner.
Tourists, who are not made aware of the oil and gas sector activities in this pristine region, are uncomfortable with the two economic activities happening side by side.
Of concern to the tourists is the use of the same entrances and tracks by the oil workers and tourists; the numerous ‘no entry’ signposts that lead to oil wells inside the park, and the sharing of a ferry by tourists and oil workers to cross the Nile River.
All these concerns are captured in a 2014 survey conducted by the World Bank and the Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife and Antiquities, intended to provide insights into the potential impact of oil exploration activities on tourism and possible mitigation measures —one of them being formation of an oil and tourism communication unit.
It was found that 72 per cent of the tourists surveyed did not know about the oil activities in the park prior to their visit.
Oil and gas activities will intensify when oil companies begin moving in machinery and workers to install the facilities necessary for oil production – slated for 2018.
The survey report, titled ‘Leveraging the oil and gas industry for the development of a comprehensive private sector in Uganda’, draws linkages between tourism and the economy, with the Murchison Falls National Park as the case study.
“Tourism and oil related activities need to be separated as much as possible to ensure that Uganda can benefit to the fullest from both sectors. More weight needs to be given to the development of tourism activities in the Murchison which will not be impacted by oil” reads the report.
Uganda’s national parks form the core of the tourism industry. Recently, the industry has become a major contributor to the economy. According to the World Bank, every dollar spent by a foreign tourist generates $2.5 of gross domestic product. Last year, the sector earned more than $1 billion.
Murchison is home to elephants, lions, giraffes, buffaloes and a variety of antelopes. The Rubongo Forest within the park is home to chimpanzees and other rainforest creatures. Unfortunately, 40 per cent of the oil discoveries are also located in the park.
The Nile River too passes through the lake, and it is home to hippos, crocodiles and water birds such as the the rare shoebill. It also offers sport fishing and boat rides and the spectacular falls. This is the most visited park in the country.
Generally, the Albertine Rift is home to 52 per cent of all birds found on the continent; the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, for instance, has hundreds of endemic bird species. A variety of mammals are found in the area, including chimpanzees and gorillas.
The Albertine Graben is also home to reptiles, butterflies and amphibians.
Tourism has been registering steady growth: the travel and tourism industry growth is forecast in Uganda for 2013-2020 is 5.2 per cent over the next six years. That growth may be hampered if no proper balance is attained between conservation and other economic activities.
Uganda currently ranks 13th on the regional ranking in travel and tourism competitiveness index, behind Kenya at eight, Rwanda at nine and Tanzania at 12.
“Oil is a finite resource and tourism is going to be one of the top sectors driving Uganda’s economy in the longterm. It is essential for Uganda to ensure that appropriate measures are taken to minimise disruption of tourism in the Murchison while oil activities are ongoing” warns the report.
Some of the qualitative comments arising from the survey indicate that many tourists are deeply concerned about the consequences of oil exploration in the park for animals and nature in general.
fonte www.theeastafrican.co.keHalima Abdalla

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BAMBINI SOLDATO, L’INFANZIA E L’ADOLESCENZA NEGATA DI CHI ANZICHE’ GIOCARE IMBRACCIA KALASHNIKOV
12 febbraio 2015
Un bambino soldato è una persona al di sotto dei 18 anni di età, che è o che è stata utilizzata da una forza armata o gruppo armato, come combattente. Ma anche come cuoco, facchino, messaggero, spia o per scopi sessuali. Oggi, nel mondo, sono più di 250.000 i bambini soldato e 23 gli Stati che utilizzano minori nelle ostilità, in forma diretta o indiretta.
Sono sei le gravi violazioni formulate dal Consiglio di sicurezza delle Nazioni Unite per proteggere i bambini durante i conflitti armati e individuare i responsabili:
– Uccisione e mutilazione di bambini
– Reclutamento o utilizzo di bambini come soldati
– Violenza sessuale contro i bambini
– Attacchi contro scuole o ospedali
– Impedimento dell’assistenza umanitaria ai bambini
– Sequestro di bambini
Nei conflitti sempre più brutali – “I bambini, dunque” si legge in un documento di Unicef “sono sempre a rischio di reclutamento e di utilizzo da parte di gruppi armati, poiché i conflitti in tutto il mondo diventano sempre più brutali, intensi e diffusi. Mentre i governi hanno fatto progressi a riconoscere che i bambini non devono essere parte degli eserciti, il reclutamento dei bambini soldato rappresenta ancora un problema enorme”, ha detto Leila Zerrougui, rappresentante speciale del Segretario Generale per i bambini nei conflitti armati. “Su 59 parti in conflitto individuate dal Segretario Generale per gravi violazioni contro i bambini, 57 sono state richiamate perché stanno reclutando e utilizzando bambini soldato”.
Ecco qui di seguito gli scenari dove decine di migliaia di ragazzi e ragazze sono associati alle forze e ai gruppi armati in conflitto nei 23 paesi del mondo individuati. Molti sono stati vittime, o testimoni o sono stati costretti a partecipare in atti di indicibile brutalità.
Afghanistan – Nonostante i progressi compiuti per porre fine al reclutamento e all’impiego di bambini nelle forze nazionali di sicurezza, i bambini continuano ad essere reclutati dalle parti in conflitto, quali la Haqqani Network e i talebani. Nei casi più estremi, i bambini sono stati usati come attentatori suicidi, per la fabbricazione di armi e per il trasporto di esplosivi.
Repubblica Centrafricana – Ragazzi e ragazze di appena otto anni sono stati reclutati e utilizzati da tutte le parti coinvolte nel conflitto per prendere parte direttamente alle violenze inter-etniche e religiose.
Repubblica Democratica del Congo – Le Nazioni Unite hanno documentato nuovi casi di reclutamento di bambini da parte di più gruppi armati che operano nella parte orientale del paese. I bambini, in alcuni casi, anche di 10 anni di età, sono stati reclutati e utilizzati come combattenti, o in funzioni di supporto, come facchini e cuochi. Le ragazze sono state usate come schiave sessuali o sono stati vittime di altre forme di violenza sessuale.
Iraq e Siria – Gli avanzamenti dell’IS e la proliferazione di gruppi armati hanno reso i bambini ancora più vulnerabili al reclutamento. Bambini di 12 anni sono in fase di addestramento militare e sono stati usati come informatori, per presidiare i posti di blocco e per sorvegliare punti strategici. In alcuni casi, sono stati utilizzati come attentatori suicidi e per effettuare esecuzioni.
Sud Sudan – Di recente è iniziato il rilascio graduale di circa 3.000 bambini del South Sudan Democratic Army (SSDA) Cobra Faction. Più di  500 bambini sono stati rilasciati nelle ultime due settimane e stanno ricevendo sostegno per tornare alla vita normale. Ulteriori rilasci sono previsti nel corso del mese prossimo.
Le Convenzioni e i Protocolli vigentiNonostante gli sforzi a livello internazionale, il problema dei bambini soldato è ancora vivo e drammaticamente in aumento.
La Convenzione Internazionale dei Diritti dell’Infanzia e dell’Adolescenza, approvata dall’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite il 20 novembre 1989, è il primo strumento internazionale che enuncia i diritti fondamentali che devono essere riconosciuti e garantiti a tutti i bambini e a tutte le bambine del mondo, insieme con gli obblighi degli Stati e della comunità internazionale nei confronti dell’infanzia.
Nel 2002 entrò in vigore il Protocollo Opzionale alla Convenzione ONU sui diritti dell’infanzia e dell’adolescenza, che tratta il coinvolgimento dei minori nei conflitti armati: il Protocollo stabilisce che nessun minore di 18 anni può essere reclutato forzatamente o utilizzato direttamente nelle ostilità, né dalle forze armate di uno Stato né da gruppi armati. L’Italia ratifica il Protocollo Opzionale con la Legge n. 148 del 9 maggio 2002. Sebbene il Protocollo rappresenti un passo importante, non è ancora uno strumento giuridico completo e sufficiente. Infatti, per il reclutamento volontario negli eserciti regolari, non è imposto il limite minimo di 18 anni.
I princìpi di Parigi – Con gli Impegni di Parigi del 2007, i rappresentanti di 58 paesi si impegnano a porre fine al reclutamento illegale di minori e ad assicurare che le procedure di arruolamento nelle forze armate siano conformi al diritto internazionale. Durante la conferenza vengono rivelati i Principi di Parigi (Paris Principles), una raccolta dettagliata di linee guida per la protezione dei minori dall’arruolamento, la riabilitazione fisica e psicologica di quelli vittime dei conflitti armati. A seguito dell’entrata in vigore del Protocollo Opzionale si sono registrati notevoli progressi per quanto riguarda l’arruolamento di minori, tuttavia il problema non è affatto superato.
La scelta di aiutarli – Esistono alcuni strumenti normativi internazionali che nel tempo sono stati adottati per tutelare e proteggere i bambini coinvolti nei conflitti e associati ai gruppi armati.
La Convenzione ONU sui diritti dell’infanzia del 1989, che mette al bando l’uso di minori di 15 anni nei conflitti armati e che impone agli Stati coinvolti di prendersi cura della riabilitazione psicologica e sociale dei minori coinvolti nelle guerre.
La Carta Africana sui diritti e il benessere del bambino del 1990, rafforza la protezione prevista nella Convenzione dell’89. Nella Carta è previsto il rispetto da parte degli Stati contraenti delle leggi del diritto internazionale umanitario applicabile ai conflitti armati in cui sono coinvolti i minori, e che gli Stati prendano misure necessarie perché bambini non prendano parte diretta alle ostilità.
Il Protocollo Opzionale sul coinvolgimento dei minori nei conflitti armati alla Convenzione sui diritti dell’infanzia del 2002, che porta a 18 anni l’età minima per l’arruolamento nelle forze armate.
– E ben 6 Risoluzioni del Consiglio di Sicurezza della Nazioni Unite (1999-2005), che richiamano gli Stati all’osservazione delle norme di diritto internazionale sulla protezione dei bambini nei conflitti, richiedono al Segretario Generale dell’ONU l’iscrizione nella black list degli Stati parti che usano minori per la guerra, riaffermano l’urgenza di programmi di smobilitazione e disarmo, di percorsi di reinserimento e riabilitazione: Resolution-1612 (2005), Resolution-1539 (2004), Resolution-1460 (2003), Resolution-1379 (2001), Resolution-1314 (2000), Resolution-1261 (1999).
fonte www.repubblica.it

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AI RUSSI IL CONTRATTO PER LA RAFFINERIA DI PETROLIO
20 febbraio 2015
Sarà un consorzio guidato da una società russa oggetto di sanzioni statunitensi a costruire la raffineria di petrolio che, nelle intenzioni del presidente Yoweri Museveni, dovrebbe contribuire allo sviluppo economico e sociale dell’Uganda.
Come ricordano oggi i quotidiani di Kampala e di Mosca, per i russi di Rostec l’impianto rappresenta un affare di due miliardi e mezzo di dollari, senza considerare l’oleodotto e altre installazioni correlate.
La società moscovita è finita lo scorso anno nel mirino degli Stati Uniti, tradizionali alleati di Museveni, a seguito dell’acutizzarsi della crisi ucraina. In Uganda, nel bacino del Lago Alberto, giacimenti di petrolio sono stati scoperti nel 2006. La produzione non dovrebbe cominciare prima del 2018.
fonte www.misna.org

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GOV’T ASKS SCHOOLS TO FEED PUPILS WITHOUT FAIL
23 february 2015
Recently, Uganda’s Trade and Industry Minister Amelia Kyambadde left residents dumbfounded when she wept at the sight of hungry children during a school fundraiser in Mpigi town council.
Namabo Primary School in Kafumu Parish, Mpigi town council where Kyambadde sobbed is just one of the many across the country that where pupils are studying on an empty stomach.
However, the ministry of education and sports has now asked primary schools from across the country to feed their children in a bid to curb absenteeism and poor performance tagged to hunger.
Speaking to New Vision in an exclusive interview on Friday, Education Minister Jessica Alupo said school authorities should discourse with parents on modalities of feeding children.
“School management committees, board of governors and parents and teachers’ associations are urged to feed all children at school without fail” argued Alupo. The minister said she expected schools in the rural areas to easily find food to feed their pupils since the countryside is the arbiter of all sorts of food items.
“There is misconception is that children in rural areas are the hungriest. The idea that there is no food in rural areas should not arise anymore. Children in rural areas should be well managed. People should organize themselves and find a way of getting food to schools.”
By 2010, there were over 8.7 million children studying in Ugandan primary schools- with more than of a half of that number not being fed in schools.
Owing to the high dropout rates partially fuelled by lack of meals in schools in Uganda, a 2014 report by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established that completion rate is low, affecting access rates to the subsequent cycles.
It emerged that although almost every child enrolls in primary one, 63% of the generation reaches primary seven; only 49% enters lower secondary and ultimately only 10% reach senior six.
In a 2010 memo to cabinet, the education ministry stated that hunger is one of the main reasons children perform poorly in UPE schools.
It explained that hungry children have poor concentration, poor mental abilities, absenteeism, bad behaviour, poor health and are school drop-outs.
The Education Act allows schools to charge parents a limited amount of money for feeding children, provided it is agreed upon by the school management committee in consultation with the district council.
It, however, maintains that such payment be voluntary. The law also states that pupils must not be dismissed from school if their parents do not pay lunch fees.
Other options proposed by the ministry for feeding school children include children returning home for lunch then going back to school. This is practical for children whose homes are near the school.
Using school gardens to provide food was also proposed such that the children can cultivate their own food during co-curricular activities.
The document further proposed that parents can cultivate communal land and supply schools with food. Another option is for parents to give their children packed lunch, which experts say has failed miserable.
In light of buttressing schools against scarcity of food, Alupo recently also announced a partnership between the Education Ministry and the World Food Programme (WFP) that will see schools get seeds for establishing farms.
“Farm implements such as hand hoes will be procured for schools in Karamoja region. Schools will be monitored to ascertain the implementation of the program to ensure great success and sustainability” said Alupo.
Teachers – A New Vision mini survey shows that teachers are happy that such a request has come from the sector leader. However, most teachers say parents have to pay some money to the respective schools of their children so that meals can be prepared.
Patience Avako, a teacher in Arua says: “a school is not an orphanage where it has to act like a care giver. Let each child fund his or her meals in school.”
In fact, many schools head teachers said they were already feeding their children with support of financial contribution from their parents by the time Alupo made the request.
At Mengo Primary school in 2012, the children had to pay sh10, 000 per term and those who had paid were given meal cards. At Buganda Road Primary School, by 2012, the management had set a lunch fee of sh10, 400 for the daily menu of posho, beans, cabbages and tomatoes (since 1997).
Nevertheless, attempts to ask parents to contribute lunch fees in some areas have been unsuccessful. Richard Nsubuga, the headteacher of Namabo Primary School said that of the 350 pupils in the school, only 50 had cleared lunch dues for the school term.
“Many children come empty handed because their illiterate parents think that with UPE, everything is free” Jane Kibuuka, the then headteacher of Kukanga Primary School in Mubende recently told New Vision. By 2012, the school asked parents to pay about sh7,000 per pupil for school lunch, but only a few brought the money.
UNATU – James Tweheyo, the secretary General of Uganda National Teachers’ Union (UNATU) said for provision of meals in schools to be a success, government should develop guidelines to inform the process.
He noted that, without such guidelines, schools may decline to offer meals to their children. “It is a good idea but it should not be rushed. There should be clear guidelines for implementation and supervision. There also needs to be a set of penalties for schools that falter” said Tweheyo.
Parents – Parents have also welcomed Alupo’s suggestion. Leticia Sabuni a parent in Kampala says if Alupo’s idea is implemented, her children will not have to walk for 10kms to home just to have meals when they have to return for afternoon lessons.
“Essentially, it will allow children to learn how to eat in public and socialize with others at meals times. However, the meals have to be thoroughly inspected for quality” said Rutaro Ismail, a parent with a child in Green Hill Academy, Kampala.
Civil society – Civil society activists have equally backed Alupo’s idea. “The Government should allow parents to contribute to the feeding of their children at school” said Kiddu Gonzaga, the Senior Program Officer of Hunger Free World, a local Nongovernmental organization in Kampala.
Gonzaga said if children are not adequately fed, they may grow up into criminals, on grounds that “hungry people are angry”.
fonte www.newvision.co.ug – Innocent Anguyo

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